What is Religion:
Religion is a synchronized collection of beliefs, social frameworks, and world perspectives that relate mankind to a request for presence. Numerous religions have accounts, images, and firm narratives that are proposed to clarify the significance of life or potentially to clarify the root of life or the Universe. From their beliefs about the universe and human instinct, individuals determine reflective quality, morals, strict laws, or a favoured way of life. As indicated by certain assessments, there are approximately 4,200 religions on the planet.
Numerous religions may have coordinated practices, church, the meaning of what establishes adherence or enrolment, blessed spots, and sacred texts. The act of religion may likewise incorporate rituals, messages, celebration or adoration of divinity, divine beings or goddesses, penances, celebrations, feasts, daze, commencements, funerary administrations, wedding administrations, contemplation, petition, music, workmanship, dance, public assistance or different parts of human culture.
Religions may likewise contain folklores. The word religion is now and again utilized reciprocally with confidence, conviction framework, or some of the time set of obligations; in any case, in the expressions of Emile Durkheim, religion varies from private faith in that it is “something prominently social.” A worldwide 2012 survey reports that 59% of the total populace is strict, and 36% are not strict, including 13% who are skeptics, with a 9 percent decline in strict conviction from 2005.
By and large, ladies are stricter than men.
A few people follow various religions or different strict standards simultaneously, whether or not or not the strict standards they follow generally consider syncretism.
Religion, people’s connection to that which they see as heavenly, holy, supreme, profound, celestial, or deserving of particular love. It is likewise regularly viewed as comprising of how individuals manage extreme worries about their lives and their destiny in the afterlife.
In numerous customs, this connection and these worries are communicated as far as one’s relationship with or mentality toward divine beings or spirits; in more humanistic or naturalistic types of religion, they are communicated as far as one’s relationship with or perspectives toward the more extensive human network or the normal world.
In numerous religions, writings are considered to have scriptural status, and individuals are regarded to be contributed with profound or moral power. Devotees and admirers take an interest in and are regularly urged to perform reverential or insightful practices, for example, supplication, contemplation, or specific ceremonies. Love, moral direct, right conviction, and support in strict organizations are among the constituent components of the strict life.
Islam entails basic and meaningful lessons:
Islam is a religion that entails very basic and meaningful lessons. The world thinks this era is the most advanced and modern but as a fact, every forth-coming period will be considered more modern in all aspects.
Looking upon the history of Islam, it shows that the time of “Khatmul Rasool, Ammamul Anbia Hazrat Mohammad (Peace Be Upon Him) is the ideal period of all times and will remain so. Present Caliph of Islam Hazrat Mohammad (Peace Be Upon Him) gave us the true lessons of life.
They spread and transferred the knowledge of Islam taught by Hazrat Mohammad (Peace Be Upon Him).
The world carries all types of good and bad deeds from the very start of life. However, people have made changes in religions based on their own choices and desires. That is why mankind has been divided into different groups.
Since Islam is the complete ordinance of life. It is the greatest and easiest religion of all. It teaches to be sympathetic and to be loveable towards mankind. It promotes brotherhood and harmony. It is Islam that talks about the equality of people and uphold it strictly. The right to live a life full of freedom is given by Islam.
It secures people’s basic rights and protects them in every way. Islam is being targeted Taking advantage of the right of speech, people are targeting religions and on which Islam is on the top of the list. This is wrong and not acceptable. Ahemdys / Marzai people are being presented as good Muslims out of nowhere and one of their leaders has been claimed as the 5th caliph of Islam which is a new conspiracy taking place to target Islam.
So many people have been claimed to be the last prophet of Islam after Hazrat Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) but they were badly failed in their plans and so they thought it is better to have the possession of Khilafat.
Such people are taking advantage of Muslim’s weaknesses. Less education and distance from basic Islamic education is the main cause of such awful acts. Such people claim to be the experts of Islam. They think they are the leaders and forcefully convince people to listen to wrong preaches by building up a link between Islam and their wrong visions.
Nobody is there to make corrections and stay strict to righteousness. It gives the reason for those people to take advantage of and spread immoral information. Wrongdoers are increasing which is making the easiest religion Islam complicated for people to understand. The best proof and reference is the Quran and Hadiths, nothing else can be an authentic and meaningful source to learn the right information.
Who is a Caliph?
A Caliph is a supreme, religious, and political leader of an Islamic state. It is the privileged title for the ruler of the Islamic Ummah who happens to be the political successors to Muhammad. The Caliph leads throughout the era and protects the rules and guides during the caliphate. Hazrat Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) is the last and greatest of prophets and chose Hazrat Abu Bakar Siddique as the first Caliph of Islam. There are 4 Caliphs of Islam.
Hazrat Abu Bakar Siddique (RA):
Hazrat Abu Bakr was the dearest companion constantly of Muhammad and the principal Muslim caliph. He was one of the primary men to change over to Islam and was picked by the Prophet as his friend on the Hijrah to Madina.
Hazrat Umar (RA):
The subsequent caliph was Hazrat Umar (RA) ibn al-Khattab. He is for the most part referred to similarly as Hazrat Umar (RA). Hazrat Umar (RA) controlled for a long time from 634-644 CE. During this time, the Islamic Empire extended incredibly. He assumed responsibility for the Middle East including overcoming the Sassanids of Iraq. He at that point assumed responsibility for some encompassing regions including Egypt, Syria, and North Africa. Umar’s rule reached a conclusion when he was killed by a Persian slave.
Hazrat Usman (RA):
Hazrat Usman was naturally introduced to the Umayyad faction of Mecca, an incredible group of the Quraysh clan. He was a friend of Muhammad who expected the part of pioneer (caliph) of the Muslim Empire at 70 years old after Umar ibn al-Khattab. Under his initiative, the realm ventured into Fars in 650 (present-day Iran), a few territories of Khorasan (present-day Afghanistan) in 651, and the victory of Armenia was started during the 640s.
Hazrat Usman was brought into the world in Taif, which is arranged on a slope, and the assumption is that he was conceived throughout the mid-year months since rich Meccans typically spent the blistering summers in the cooler atmosphere of Taif. He was naturally introduced to the affluent Umayyad (Banu Umayya) group of the Quraysh clan of Mecca, seven years after Muhammad.
‘Hazrat Usman’s father, Affan, kicked the bucket youthful while traveling abroad however left a huge legacy to Hazrat Usman. Hazrat Usman followed a similar calling as his dad, and his business thrived, making him probably the most extravagant man among the Quraysh fraternity.
Hazrat Usman was an early proselyte to Islam and is said to have spent a lot of his abundance on the foundation. On getting back from a work excursion to Syria in 611, Hazrat Usman discovered that Muhammad had proclaimed his central goal. After a conversation with his companion, Abu Bakr Hazrat Usman chose to change over to Islam, and Abu Bakr took him to Muhammad to whom he announced his confidence.
Hazrat Usman in this manner turned into the fourth male to change over to Islam, after Hazrat Ali, Hazrat Zaid, and Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique. His transformation to Islam rankled his faction, the Banu Ummayyah, who unequivocally contradicted Muhammad’s teachings.
Hazrat Ali (RA):
Hazrat Ali, in full Ali ibn Abi Ṭalib, was born in the 600th century, in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. He passed away on January 661st century in Kufa, Iraq). He was a cousin and child in-law of Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, and fourth of the “appropriately guided” (Rashidun) caliphs, as the initial four replacements of Muhammad are called.
The subject of his entitlement to the caliphate (the political-strict structure containing the network of Muslims and its domains that arose after the passing of Muhammad) brought about the lone significant split in Islam, into the Sunni and Shia branches. Ali is known inside the Islamic convention by various titles, some mirroring his characteristics and others got from specific scenes of his life.
Upon the passing of the Prophet in 632, Ali and Muhammad’s family assumed responsibility for the courses of action for his memorial service. Simultaneously, conversations started concerning who ought to succeed Muhammad.
Both the anṣar, the individuals of Medina who had grasped Islam, and the muhajirun, those from Mecca who had relocated to Medina, needed the replacement to come from their gathering. To stay away from division, the heads of the network amassed at saqifat Bani Saidah (“the live with the covered top of the clan of Bani Saidah”) to pick a replacement. After much discussion, Abu Bakr was named caliph (Khalifah, “replacement”), the leader of the Islamic people group.
He didn’t dissent yet resigned from public life and committed himself to contemplate and showing the Quran. He was regularly counseled, notwithstanding, by Abu Bakr and his replacement, Umar, in issues of state. Ali acknowledged the choice of ʿUmar as caliph and even gave one of his little girls, Umm Kulthūm, to him in marriage.
After the passing of Umar in 644, Ali was considered for the caliphate alongside five other prominent individuals from the network. One of them, Abd al-Raḥman ibn Awf, pulled out however asked that he be trusted with picking the following caliph, a solicitation that was conceded. He addressed both ʿUthman and ʿAli and ruled for the previous.
Ali perceived the caliph’s position, as indicated by Shia sources, yet stayed impartial between Uthman’s allies and his rivals. Ali even sent his children to ensure Uthman’s home when he was at risk of being assaulted. At the point when Uthman was killed in 656 by the individuals who thought of him as frail and who blamed him for nepotism, Ali reproved his youngsters for not having safeguarded Uthman’s home appropriately. Ali himself was then picked as the fourth and last of the appropriately guided caliphs.
The time of the caliphate of Ali, from 656 until his passing in 661, was the remotest in his life. Numerous individuals from the Quraysh betrayed him since he shielded the privileges of the Hashemite, a group of the Quraysh to which Muhammad had a place. He was additionally blamed for neglecting to seek after the killers of his archetype and cleansing Uthman’s allies from office.
Chief among his rivals was Muawiyah, the legislative leader of Syria and a relative of Uthman, who guaranteed the option to vindicate Uthman’s demise. In his showdown with Muawiyah, Ali was upheld by the Ansar and the individuals of Iraq.
Before he could act, nonetheless, he needed to manage the insubordination of two senior associates, Talḥah and Zubayr. Joined by ʿAishah, a little girl of Abu Bakr and third spouse of Muhammad, the two had walked upon Basra and caught it. ʿAli amassed a military in Kufa, which turned into his capital and met the renegades in 656 at the Battle of the Camel.
Albeit a quiet settlement had almost been reached before the battling began, fanatics on the two sides constrained the fight, in which Ali’s powers were triumphant. Talḥah and Zubayr were slaughtered, and ʿAishah was directed securely back to Medina.
Why having a Caliph was Important in Islam?
In 632 the Prophet Muhammad passed on in his embraced old neighborhood of Medina, causing an emergency in the new Muslim people group he had brought into being. His authority was one of a kind in that it crossed strict, political, and military circles—he appeared to be indispensable.
It was because of this emergency that the possibility of a caliph as a ruler and a caliphate as a thought of power, ideas exceptional to Islam, arisen, conceived from the occasions that encompassed the introduction of the new development in the seventh century.
The Prophet Muhammad consistently appears to have acknowledged his mortality—there was no thought that he may become alive once again or keep on driving the network after he died. He likewise clarified that he was the remainder of the Prophets, that extraordinary chain of the 124,000 God-roused ministers starting with Adam and finishing with himself.
Although the Prophet acknowledged his mortality, he didn’t, as per most Muslims, name a replacement. In early records, the Muslims, upon their chief’s demise in 632, made hurried game plans to pick perhaps the nearest friend of Muhammad, the matured and regarded Abu Bakr, to lead the new network. After his demise, only two years after the fact, he was prevailing by Umar, second just to Muhammad as guide and model for most Sunni Muslims, who managed until his passing in 644.
Be that as it may, these impromptu plans left a ton of inquiries unanswered. Did the network need a pioneer by any stretch of the imagination? There were many, particularly from the more far off Arabian clans, who had promised certainty to Muhammad however felt that with his demise the bonds were broken down and they could head out in a different direction.
This inquiry was settled, basically, forcibly. Abu Bakr, Umar, and the first class of the Prophet’s clan Quraysh who upheld them conveyed armed forces to constrain the stubborn clans into line. These clans turned into the majority of the Muslim armed forces that vanquished the Middle East in the next many years.
Thus it was set up that, indeed, the Muslim people group, the umma, required a solid and compelling initiative, however, that this quickly prompted another arrangement of inquiries. The most evident was what title the pioneer ought to have.
He was unable to be a Prophet, for Muhammad was the remainder of those. Titles borne by the Byzantine head or the Persian King of Kings were likewise not feasible; they had a place with that old, bad, various leveled request the militaries of Islam had so victoriously toppled.
In the years that followed, two titles were utilized. One was Amir al-Mu’minin (Commander of the Faithful), which made the obligations of the position genuinely clear: the amir was to be the military head of the Muslims, the president, yet he would give no otherworldly or lawful initiative. The job would not expect him to recommend answers to the numerous inquiries regarding religion and ethics to which the Qur’an and the Prophet’s expressions gave no unmistakable direction.
The workplace of the caliph, the subsequent title, arisen to fill that nonappearance. The idea was fruitful because it was adaptable to the point of uncertainty. The English word is gotten from the Arabic khalifa, which can mean either replacement or representative—the qualification between the two is significant for understanding what individuals needed from the workplace.
On the off chance that it implied replacement, at that point, the caliph was unmistakably the replacement of Muhammad (for God, being endless, can have no replacement). And yet he was not a prophet, so he could acquire just the more viable parts of the Prophet’s job, the everyday organization except, critically, not his obligations as the go-between of celestial insight to humanity. If he was representative, notwithstanding, at that point, he was God’s agent on earth, a man who could decipher and disclose God’s will to humankind.
Another key distinction of assessment arose over the decision of the caliph. Essentially everybody trusted it should take care of business, and a great many people concurred that he should be browsed the early Muslim first class, the Quraysh. Be that as it may, who among them should be picked and how? Two collections of thought arose. The main was that the caliph should be picked by the main Muslims from the most capable and the most devout.
That implied the caliph would be named by men as the replacement of the Prophet, the CEO of the Ummah. Being named by men who, all things considered, can commit errors as opposed to picked by God, implied that the caliph’s profound job, his immediate contact with the heavenly, would be restricted. Throughout the following four centuries, these conclusions were to blend into the Sunni hypothesis of the caliphate.
This agreement was tested by another, potentially more extreme perspective on what the caliphate should mean. Some held that the option to lead the network had a place with the group of the Prophet, which means Muhammad’s immediate blood relatives through his little girl Fatima (his lone enduring youngster) and her significant other, the Prophet’s cousin Ali.
They contended that this was God’s choice and that He, as opposed to uncertain men, had picked this family to lead the Muslims. It at that point turned out to be anything but difficult to contend that this God-picked ruler would have a comprehension of the awesome will denied to normal humans. This was, as expected, to turn into the Shi’i perspective on the caliphate.
This division would in general solidify along social lines. Individuals from the common and military elites regularly upheld the Sunni perspective on a caliph whose basic job was to deal with business as usual. The individuals who needed an extreme change that would prompt another and all the more Muslim society inclined toward the Shi’a, who appeared to be the victor of the abused and those who lack wealth.
This resistance was obvious in the purposeful publicity paving the way to the Iranian insurgency of 1979 in which the group of the Prophet and their delegates among the ministry declared their function as allies of the discouraged, empowering the mainstream uphold expected to oust an advantage tip-top spoke to by the shah and his retainers.
In the hundreds of years after the demise of Muhammad, the clearness of these two contrasting perspectives and the very suitability of the workplace of the caliph was more than once tested. At the point when the main caliph, Abu Bakr (administering from 632 until his passing in 634), was picked by the main Muslims, barring Ali, it set an example that would be rehashed in the determination of the caliphs who followed.
In the initial three centuries of Islam, the Umayyad caliphs of Damascus (661–750) and the Abbasid caliphs of Baghdad (750–945) practiced sole political power over a significant part of the Muslim world. After the mid-10th century, be that as it may, their political impact contracted significantly until they managed just a little state in focal Iraq. Simultaneously, they never built up a part as otherworldly pioneers.
The caliphs, in contrast to archaic popes, were not viable tops of the Sunni people group, and the ability to choose matters of tenet, conviction, and right conduct had since a long time ago passed to strict researchers. Numerous masterminds scrutinized the convenience of the caliph.
During the Crusades of the twelfth and thirteenth hundreds of years, when the Muslims of the Middle East was confronted with a significant existential test, none of the caliphs gave compelling authority at either a military or political level.
It was left to the Kurdish explorer Saladin to lead the Muslim re-conquest of Jerusalem in 1187. When in 1258 the Mongols fired Baghdad, rolling the last Abbasid caliph in a floor covering and stomping on him under the hooves of their ponies, numerous sincere Muslims grieved, however, his passing started no far-reaching commotion for quick substitution, and the caliphate got old, recalled yet solidly committed to the past.
For some Shia is the possibility of the caliph as a supernaturally enlivened ruler waited. However, most had concluded that the remainder of the immediate relatives of Ali and Fatima had strangely vanished, seeking refuge in the 10th century and leaving nobody any case to run the show.
While the imam-caliph, his supporters presently asserted, lives everlastingly and without him, there can be no evident Islam, nobody can see him or speak with him. It is left to the researchers to clarify what his position would be. This thus implies it is outlandish for most Shi’is to acknowledge another human caliph: the shrouded imam as of now fills that job.
For Sunnis, the dominant part network in Islam, the caliphate is an antiquated and stunning however fundamentally insignificant thought. While the Ottoman rulers in Istanbul asserted discontinuously and fairly apathetically to be inheritors of the incredible office, in the mid-20th century the caliphate was probably as pertinent to most Muslims as the Holy Roman Empire was to their counterparts in Western Europe.
For politically dynamic individuals in the Middle East, the persuading thoughts were patriotism, regardless of whether Arab or Persian and, after 1945, communism. It was simply after both these goals had neglected to carry solidarity and capacity to the Muslim individuals that a few masterminds started to think back to what they accepted to have been a flawless brilliant age following the demise of the Prophet when fearless, legit, and ethical caliphs had joined the Muslims and driven them to triumph.
Most likely, they contended, the path forward is to recover that early soul; for a few, remarkably the extreme 1970s gathering known as Hizb al-Tahrir and all the more as of late the supposed Islamic State, the recovery of the caliphate is key to this undertaking of re-establishing the solidarity and intensity of the Muslim people group.
For them, the investigation of the early history of Islam is no savant venture except for a fundamental manual for what should be done at this point. On the off chance that early Muslims had oppressed unbelievers—including individual Muslims who couldn’t help contradicting them and conquered their ladies and kids, at that point that was what these new heroes of the confidence ought to do.
The caliphate could ensure the procedure of law, consolidating pragmatic political and military control with otherworldly and moral administration. Each era needs the implementation of laws and rules to synchronize the social norms and maintain the required momentum.
To answer a question who is current Caliph of Islam or present Caliph of Islam, first of all let us inform you, the last Caliph of Islam was Umar Bin Abdul Aziz. Mirza Masroor Ahmad cannot be held as last or current Caliph of Islam. He is representing only a small sect of society named as “Ahmadiyya Community”. Mirza Masroor Ahmad Is not representing Islamic Caliphate. In 21st century there is no need or concept of Caliphate in Islamic World. Yet, there is a consensus of Muslim Ummah over the arrival of Imam Mahdi (May Peace Be Upon Him) near the days of Judgement.
Present Khalifa of Islam:
After Omer Bin Abdul Aziz there is no Present Khalifa or Present caliph of Islam. Muslims are followers of Holy Prophet Muhammad (May Peace Be Upon Him). In Muslim faith or in Islamic doctrine there is not a single reference about Mirza Mansoor. He is leading a separate community which is Ahmadiyya community. We all believe on the Prophethood or Risalah of Muhammad (PBUH). There is a clear Commandment from God Almighty Allah, which is something like so,
“Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (He (PBUH) is) the Messenger of Allah, and the Seal (the Last in the line of Prophets) of the Prophets: and Allah has full knowledge of all things
(The Holy Quran, Al-Ahzab 33:40)”
No present Khalifa or No Present Caliph of Islam
It is an admitted fact that there is “No, Present Khalifa of Islam”. Let’s consider its logical and legal standings first. Mankind needs a caliph when the religion is not complete. The obvious thing is Quran and religion of Islam are the most perfect and comprehensive sources to practice and follow. There is no need for Caliphate now. Read the Quranic reference on this status;
“Today I have perfected your religion for you, and I have completed my blessing upon you, and I have approved Islam for your religion”
So, everything is written in the Quran, Hadith and Sunnah for the believers. The door of Guidance is 24 hours open for the seekers.
Who are the 5 Caliphs of Islam?
After Prophet Muhammad (May Peace Be Upon Him), the final Messenger of God, 4 personalities are declared Caliphs of Islam whom we give much respect and honor for their great sacrifices and contribution.
The names of 5 Caliphs of Islam are given below:
- Abu Bakr Siddique (May All Be Pleased with Him)
- Umer –e-Farooq (May All Be Pleased with Him)
- Usman-e-Ghani (May All Be Pleased with Him)
- Hazrat Ali (May All Be Pleased with Him)
- Omer Bin Abdul Aziz
After Umer Bin Abdul Aziz, some minorities tried to enjoy the title of Caliph of Islam like Ahmadiyya community but its not according to the spirit of Islam. We should know majority of Muslims believe the question of current Caliph in recent year is a wastage of time. We should not spend time over it, because every Muslim believes strongly on all 5 Caliphs which are mentioned above.
What is Islamic Caliphate?
The Islamic Caliphate is definitely the process of government in Islamic law, that is in accordance with the succession of a Muslim leader across the Islamic state to rule it in accordance with Islamic legislation. And it is known as the caliphate since the caliph is their head and he is the person who succeeds Muhammad, the Messenger of God in Islam, to envision the command of Muslims as well as the Islamic state. Consequently, the aim of the caliphate is to employ the judgments of Islam and put them into action.
Who is Current Caliph or Khalifa of Muslims?
Again it is very important to note there Is no current Caliph of the Muslim world. After the reign of Hazrat Ali
(The forth Caliph of Islam), people witnessed a great Muslim leader who got much appreciation due to his justice and social equality in society. That was none other than Present Caliph of Islam Present Caliph of Islam who was Omer Bin Abdul Aziz.
Islamic Leadership in the history of Mankind
Verily Present Caliph of Islam is a wrong or misleading question not only for all Muslims but also for non-Muslim. Some groups are constantly trying to claim the Caliphate
What is Legal Status of Ahmadis?
Article 260-3 of the 1973 Constitution states Ahmadis are categorically “non-Muslims”. They cannot claim any Muslim position or title from Islamic traditions. If any Ahmadi is asking himself or herself as Caliph, then it’s a huge conspiracy. It is a misleading practice which is affecting the human rights, civil rights, religious rights and freedom of expression.
In addition, Article 298-B, puts a stop to an Ahmadi from making reference to his/her location of worship like a ‘masjid’ or mentioning his/her call for prayers exactly as ‘azaan’.
Caliphs would be the political and non-secular leaders and commanders of the Islamic Ummah from the death of the Prophet Muhammad until the caliphate was abolished. They are the rulers and caretakers of the Islamic Kingdom / Caliphate State.
What are Phases of Caliphate?
Caliphate can be divided into two parts:
First Phase of Caliphate:
a) Caliphate (632 till 661 AD)
b) The Umayyad Caliphate (661 – 750 AD)
c)The Abbasid Caliphate (750 – 1258 AD)
d)Ottoman Empire (1517 – 1924 AD)
The second section of Caliphate is the competing Phases namely:
e) Caliphate of Córdoba (929 – 1031 m)
f) Fatimid Caliphate (909 – 1171 m)
g) Caliphate Almohad (1149 – 1269 AD)
No Relation of Ahmadi community with Islamic Caliphate
So, as you have witnessed above there is
“no relation or connection of Ahmadi Leader with Islamic Caliphate.”
The Title of Rightly Guided Caliphs
- Who is caliph of Islam?
- Who is Commander of Islam?
- Who is Sultan?
The title of the Rightly Guided Caliphs is given to Abu Bakr, Umar, Usman and Ali, and some are included with them later on and that great leader was Omar bin Abdul Aziz. Similarly, Hassan Bin Ali was also considered one of the best Muslim leaders.
The first one to believe the most closest companion of Prophet Muhammad PBUH and to hold caliphate of the Muslims was Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq and the identify of Caliph was given because he succeeded the Prophet Muhammad in power, then Umar bin Al-Khattab was succeeded by the dome of the Caliph, the Caliph of the Messenger of God, however, the people transformed that title and altered to the Commander of the Devoted, and this title continued to be in use until the Ottomans took control of the caliphate And they kept their title Sultan.
Headquarters: From 632 in Medina to 657, in Kufa from 657 to 661, in Damascus from 661 to 750, then in Baghdad from 750 to 1258, then in Cairo from 1261 to 1517, and finally in Istanbul or Astana from 1517 until 1922
These people were a symbolic recognition, they had no advantage or harm, when it comes to executive power at that time at the disposal of the Mamluks, the Mamluk system took it’s origin from elections.
Heredity, for the senior Mamluks used to choose the Sultan among themselves, and the Europeans copied this method from the Muslims, so that’s why they set up the parliamentary monarchy in the period.
The Abbasids of Cairo might not have experienced political power such as the Mamluks, but they enjoyed great religious prominence.
The caliphs are split up into 4 divisions, such as
- the Umayyad
- the Abbasids
- the Ottomans
The Rightly Guided Caliphate: 632-661: The first Muslim caliphate was Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq.
And he was known as the caliph because he succeeded the Messenger of God in ruling the Muslim Community, then Umar ibn al-Khattab succeeded him.
The Sultan, as soon as the killing of Umar bin Al-Khattab, Osman bin Affan took control of the caliphate. His period led to a group of Muslims revolting against him and killing him in his own house, then Ali bin Abi Talib succeeded him
The Kharijites slain Ali bin Abi Talib, Muawiya bin Abi Sufyan and Amr bin Al-Aas, so Abd al-Rahman bin Maljim stabbed Ali while he was away from mosque after prayer.
Dawn fell lifeless, with the death of Ali and his son, Hassan bin Ali, relinquishing his right to caliphate to Muawiyah. Muawiyah became the caliph of the Muslims and the period of the Umayyad state began.
Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali are called the Rightly Guided Caliphs, and some add to them Hassan bin Ali and Omar bin Abdul Aziz.
The Umayyad Caliphate
The Umayyad state or the Umayyad Caliphate or the State of the Umayyad (41 – 132 Hijri / 662 – 750 AD) is the second caliphate in the history of Islam, and the largest in the history of Islam. The Banu Umayyads were the first of the ruling Muslim families, as they ruled from the year 41 AH (662 AD) to 132 AH (750 AD), and the capital of the state was the city of Damascus.
The founder of the empire, Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan (661-680 CE), was a ruler of the Levant since 657 CE by Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab . After the killing of Ali bin Abi Talib and also the assumption of the caliphate by Hassan bin Ali, the succession was relinquished to Mu’awiyah bin Abi Sufyan according to an agreement that it would devolve to him after the death of Mu’awiyah, but al-Hassan died before Mu’awiyah, and from there the caliphate moved to the Sufyani branch of Banu Umayya, until Mu’awiyah II bin Yazid died.
Muawiyah, and he did not assume a crown prince, so Abdullah bin Al-Zubayr called himself the caliph of the Muslims, and the second fitnah occurred among Muslims until the matter settled for Abdul Malik bin Marwan bin Al-Hakam, who is the founder of the Marwani branch of the Umayyad family, and the king remained in his sons and grandchildren until Marwan bin Muhammad bin Marawan bin al-Hakam took over and the Umayyad caliphate then fell at the hands of the Abbasids.
Who is Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan?
Muawiyah bin Abi Sufyan’s approach to power was less bloody than the paths of most of those who set up new dynasties. And he felt, as many of the usurpers feel, that he required to surround his throne with splendor and luxurious looks, and likened in this to the emperors of the Byzantine state, who likened themselves to the king of the Persian kings.
The survival of this type of individual monarchical government from the era of Cyrus to the present day indicates its credibility to rule and exploit ignorant people. Muawiya himself felt that his rule was justified by what returned to the country in its prosperity, the disruption of conflict between the tribes, and what the Arab state reached from the Gihon River to the Nile River of strength and tenacity.
And he thought that there was no way to avoid the conflict that would have to happen when selecting a caliph if he followed the principle of election, and the turmoil and chaos that this conflict would lead to, unless he was replaced by the hereditary system, so he called his son Yazid as crown prince, and took the pledge of allegiance to him from all the states of the Arab state.
Take over Yazid bin Muawiya and the Karbala incident
On the other hand, when Muawiyah passed away and the fire of war broke out in order to inherit the throne, as it ignited at the start of his reign. The Muslims of Kufa were sent to Al-Hussein bin Ali, gave guarantee to support his choice of the caliphate if he came to them and took their country as their headquarters.
Hussein left Mecca with his family and seventy of his faithful followers. When that convoy was twenty-five miles north of Kufa, it was met by a force from Jund Yazid, led by Ubayd Allah, and Hussein offered to deliver, but those who were with him were only combating. And one of the first arrows hit a denominator of nephew Hussein, a ten-year-old boy, so he died in his uncle’s arms.
Then Hussein’s brothers and sons, cousins, as well as nephews fell after him one by one, until no one was left who were with him, and terror and panic seized ladies at that time.
Who is Walid Bin Abdul Malik?
In the East, the pilgrims ruled the country firmly and seriously, and carried out construction work in it not less than the harshness they resorted to in this ruling: He dried the swamps, repaired a lot of lands and prepared them for agriculture.
He reopened the hidden irrigation canals and fixed them. Then he was not satisfied with these actions, so he made a great revolution in the way of writing using the syntactic movements, and Al-Hajjaj was a teacher before he was a governor.
As for Al-Walid himself, he was a good example for rulers, concerned with management affairs more than war, encouraging industry and commerce by opening new markets and repairing roads, establishing educational institutions and hospitals – including the first known hospital for infectious diseases – and shelters for the elderly and the blind, and expanding the mosques of Makkah, Madinah and Jerusalem.
And he beautifies them, and establishes in Damascus a mosque that is greater than these mosques and the most luxurious which is still in it today. He used to find among all these concerns ample time in which he would borrow poetry, compose musical tunes, beat the lute, and listen to other poets and musicians, and every two days was devoted to a day of prayer. And you note in above all these things there is no linkage of Present Caliph of Islam with family of Qadiyani community.
Umar Ibn Abd al –Aziz | Present Caliph of Islam
Abu Hafs Umar ibn Abd al -Aziz ibn Marawan bin al – Hakam al – Umayyad al-Qurashi (61 AH / 681 CE – 101 AH / 720 CE), he was the eighth Umayyad caliphs, Umar II. And after Ali May Allah be pleased with him, Umer Bin Abdal Aziz is also known as 5th most dominated and revolutionary caliph of Islam. Umar Bin Abdul Aziz’s birth year is said to be the year 61 AH in Medina, and grew up there with his maternal uncles from the family of Omar bin al-Khattab. Present Caliph of Islam have no existence in these days.
Present Caliph of Islam was the Caliph of Islamic Ummah but now there is no Caliphate system in Muslim World. That is 100% confirmed and agreed point in Muslim world. He was affected by them and the group of the Companions in Madina Sharif. Around 87 AH, Caliph Al-Walid bin Abd al-Malik succeeded him within the Emirate of Medina, and then he annexed him a stateTaif in the year 91 AH, then he turned governor of the whole Hijaz, then he was removed from it and transferred to Damascus.
When Suleiman bin Abdul Malik took charge of the caliphate, he introduced him closer, made him a minister and consultant to him, then made him his crown prince, and when Suleiman passed away in the year 99 AH, Omar took control of the caliphate.
The succession of Omar bin Abdul Aziz was recognized by a number of characteristics, including: justice and equality, the restoration of grievances that his predecessors had committed from the Umayyads, the isolation and punishment of all unjust rulers, as well as the work of the Shura Council. And he ordered the recording of the Prophet’s Hadith. Umar’s caliphate lasted two years, five months, and four days, until he was poisoned in the year 101 AH, and Yazid bin Abdul Malik assumed the caliphate after him.
If someone claims to be Present Caliph of Islam, then he must have an age of many hundred years. It is a funny thing if we see logically. We are in 21st century and there is no concept of such ruling in Muslim World. Every sensible Muslim knows Imam Mehdi will come one day and represent Islam as real caliph of Muslim. We can say at that time then yes, Imam Mehdi May Peace Be Upon Him is the Present Caliph of Islam.
Omar bin Abdul Aziz was raised in Medina, when he grew up he learnt many skills and good virtues. Abdullah bin Omar bin al-Khattab used to come to his mother’s place then return to his mother and say:
“O his mother, I would love to be like my maternal uncle.”
Omar bin Abdul Aziz, since his childhood, was very interested in searching for knowledge, and he used to love studying and learning among scholars, and he was keen to stay in the councils of knowledge in the city, and at that time it was a shining example of knowledge and righteousness, replete with scholars, jurists and righteous people, and he yearned for knowledge when he was young, and it was the first thing. It was evident from Rushd Omar bin Abdulaziz his keenness on science and his desire for literature.
Omar bin Abdul Aziz collected the Qur’an when he was young, and he was helped in that by his purity, great ability to memorize, and his complete dedication to looking for knowledge and memorization.
Omar bin Abdul Aziz left Madinah, crying, with his servant Muzahim. He looked to Muzahim and said:
“Oh Muzahim, we are frightened that we are the ones who turned down Madinah.
Umar kept walking until he reached As-Suwayda, and he had a house and a farm in it, and he stayed there for a period of time monitoring the situation from a distance, then he saw that the interest of Muslims requires that his stay in Damascus be next to the Caliph.
In 101 AH, Umar bin Abdul Aziz al-Waleed bin Hisham al-Maiti, and Amr bin Qais al-Kindi, from the people of Homs, invaded and ordered the deportation of the people of Taranda while they were hated, because of his compassion on them from the enemy. And he wanted to demolish al-Misisa because it was exposed to the raids of the Romans, then he seized it and built a mosque for its people on the side of “Kefraya.
Umar was very firm in taking the truth and guarding it, and this is what the narration of Ibn Abd al-Hakam signifies, as he claims that when Caliph Omar bin Abdul Aziz sent a messenger to the King of Rome, and he informed him the story of a prisoner in the country of Rome who was instructed to leave Islam and convert to Christianity, stating: To him:
“If you do not do that, your eyes will turn away.”
Then he selects his religion over his eyes, and his eyes closed. Then Caliph Omar bin Abdul Aziz sent to the King of Rome and told him:
“I swear by God as you did not send him to me to send members of the military to you, who will be the first of them with you and the last of them with me.”
Then King responded Roman to his request, and he sent the man to him
So, a great character Caliph of Islam Umer Bin Abdul Aziz holds which must be considered when you study Islamic traditions and history.
The shrine of Umer Bin Abdul Aziz the current Caliph of Islam of that time is located in the village of Deir located east of the city Maart of the province of Idlib in Syria.
The researcher Kamel Shehadeh has fully rehabilitated the building and built a dome over the mausoleum, and constructed a public park around it for visitors and tourists from all over the country to stand in front of the tomb of this caliph, who was proverbial in his piety, devoutness and justice.
The site of the mausoleum is a monastery dating back to the 5th century AD, where the monk Simon used to reside, and when Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz became governor of the kernels close to Aleppo, a powerful connection arose between him and the monk Samaan, as Caliph Umar used to check out this region often where his mother and uncles lands.
Caliph of the Muslim (Omar Bin Abdul Aziz)
Omar bin Abdul Aziz became the caliph of the Muslims. This relationship continued, and this relationship developed until he bought from the monk Simon a place in the monastery to be buried in, and he insisted that he will pay the price for it to the monk who desired to give him a gift of love next to him, and when he passed away in 101 AH he was buried near his wife Fatima bint Abd al-Malik in this grave, many Ayyubid and Mamluk sultans visited him, including Sultan Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi in 584 AH .
The Syrian researcher Kamel Shehadeh done a study to look for the exact location of the mausoleum, and through this study was able to prove the exact area of the shrine in the village of Deir Sharqi (located east of the city of Maarat al-Nu’man, and then discovers the tomb of Caliph Omar bin Abdul Aziz.
And after figuring out the site, Kamel Shehadeh managed to obtain On the approval and budget of the Ministry of Antiquities and Museums to restore the shrine and build a dome above it until it was in very good condition. And its splendor came back to it. On January 28, 2020, the shrine was burned by Iranian militias and the Syrian armed forces that moved into the city of Maarat al-Numan after battling with the Free Syrian Army fighters. Omar Bin Abdul Aziz set a lot of examples as Present Caliph of Islam in his reign.
Birth of Umer Bin Andul Aziz (5th Khalifa of Islam)
Omar bin Abdul Aziz was born in Medina in the year 61 AH, and historians differed as to the year of his birth, and it is more likely that he was born in the year 61 AH, which is the view of most historians, and because it supports what is mentioned that he died at the age of forty years, when he died in the year 101 AH. People still remember his good works as current Caliph of Islam because if rulers of today’s Muslim worlds follow his planning and way of ruling then the prosperity will come and be part of Muslim’s destiny.
Some sources pointed out that he was born in Egypt, and this saying is weak because his father Abdel Aziz bin Marawan took over Egypt in the year 65 AH after Marawan bin Al-Hakam seized it from the hand of Abdullah bin Al-Zubayr , and that his son Abdel Aziz took over her, and it was not known to Abdel Aziz bin Marawan a residence in Egypt before That, but it was his residence and Bani Marawan in Medina, and al- Dhahabi described that he was born in Medina at the time of Yazid.
The Umayyad state cracked
After Hisham bin Abd al-Malik, the caliphs who introduced shame upon the family, whose first successors were distinguished by ability and talent, lived a life of luxurious and corruption, and neglected the affairs of government. Was Walid II (734 – 744) corrupt ethics, out on religion rules, immersed in physical desires, and when he heard the news of the death of his uncle, Hisham was and arrested Ibn Hisham himself.
Fall of the Umayyad state
The fall of the Umayyad state had a number of factors, including: that the Umayyads stressed the Alawites, and they exalted the Alawites. After the killing of their father, the kids of Al-Hussein were young. Abu Hashim, upon his killing, entrusted Muhammad bin Ali as the head of the Abbasids, and the Umayyads were warning the Alawites more than they warn the Abbasids, so that the Abbasids could actually spread their support towards them.
The second: that the Umayyad state rewarded its great men with the worst incentive – and the great men in the states are few – so when the Umayyad state lost its men, it lost a great part of its power. And Qutayba bin Muslim, and from the mistake of the Umayyad Caliphs, they wronged the likes of these men, so they killed some of them. Such as Khaled bin Abdullah, Qutayba bin Muslim, and Yazid bin Muhallab, and Musa bin Nusayr was imprisoned.
And a third reason; It is: the borders of the kingdom are separated due to the expansion of the conquests, so they reach the circle of their possession unless the state of the Romans reached it before them. Between the two rivers known as the island, Iran, and some of the Afghans, Turkestan, the Caucasus, Armenia, the Arabian Peninsula, Syria, Egypt, Morocco, and Andalusia all came under the possession of their sultans, and controlling these various, vast countries, was not very difficult, especially those who are resolute. Therefore, it was one of the strengths of the Abbasid state, and among its basic rules was the lack of expansion in the conquests.
In addition to that: What God loved the Abbasids, such as Abu Muslim al-Khurasani, who succeeded brilliantly in revolting against the Umayyads, and calling for the Abbasids, thus he was able to take revenge on the Arabs as a reward in accordance with what the Arabs took revenge on the Persians in the principle of Islam.
He was mighty man who conducted the war against the Umayyads with skill, activity and bravery until he succeeded. Nevertheless, Abu Jaafar al-Mansur rewarded him with the most severe reward by killing him after he had paved the way for him, and removed from him all the obstacles that he experienced. The Umayyads are in the anecdotes of their men, and the matter of Al-Rasheed – as far as After – what he did with Baramkeh.
All of these causes were mixed, and were the cause of the fall of the Umayyad state, and the rise of the Abbasids after them, harassing them, and killing all of them they found.
Intellectual Movements Started in the Umayyad Era
The age of the Umayyad dynasty spanned nearly a century, and specifically the Umayyad dynasty lived 91 years between the years 41 AH and 132 AH. The period of the Umayyad Caliphate was distinguished by its shortness – compared to the Abbasid Caliphate – by the presence of a group of intellectual and revolutionary movements, the most important of which were:
1) Shia Community
Who are Kharijities?
Their movement came about when Ali bin Abi Talib approved Mu’awiya’s request for arbitration in the Battle. A team from Ali’s Military stated: The arbitration is incorrect because it means doubt about what we did war for. And they asked Imam Ali to admit himself by mistake, but in disbelief for his acceptance of arbitration. And when he did not respond to them, they unanimously agreed to leave Kufa to a village called Harra, and they were called at the time Al-Haruriyya.
Some referred to as the Kharijites since they went out against Imam Ali and his companions. After that, the Kharijites split into many groups, including the moderate and some of them the exaggerated.
Despite the existence of these and other movements, such as the Mu’tazila, Jabariyya, and Maraja, no independent states, such as those that appeared during the Abbasid Caliphate, were created during the Umayyad Caliphate, the state remained cohesive despite its expansion that it witnessed throughout the period of the rule of its powerful successors.
Do Muslims Need Present Caliph of Islam?
So, you have observed so far the history of Islamic Caliphs is very old and long. It is not easy to claim caliphate in this present era. There is no Sultan that can lead whole Muslim Ummah at this time. There is no minority that can overcome of Muslim world with the title of Present Caliph of Islam.
Ahmadi Community is working as Anti-Islamic Movement
Islam is a great religion with powerful traditions. Mirza Masroor cannot be an authority in Islamic world. His background has no match with Islamic traditions. He is just trying to promote anti-Islamic agenda. His ancestors were totally against Islam and Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) commandments.
Islam does not need a help from any sick minded person or community. Islam is a perfection religion with all necessary guidelines in the shape of Hadith and Sunnah. The Ijmah or Qayyas are also based on Holy Quran and Sunnah of the final Messenger of God, Hazrat Muhammad Peace Be upon Him.
Ahmadiyya community is working against the basic principles of Islamic teachings. This community is trying to manipulate the Quranic Verses and mandatory books. This minority cannot breach the real Islamic values with their corrupt planning. Islam is not a hijacked religion rather Islam is a religion of nature. Islam teaches us to love nature and creator of Nature, which is God Almighty (Allah). The Supreme Power is only Allah.
Eligibility to be a present Caliph of Islam?
It is not an easy thing to be a present caliph of Islam. There must be strong reference in the Quran, Hadith or Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him). Otherwise the greatest 4 caliphs of Islam must have links with the current caliph of Islam.
“A caliph is not a caliph unless he admits the finality of Prophet Muhammad & Un-divided authority of Caliphate Rashida.”
So, we must understand this principle in mind whenever we search something related to “present Islamic Caliph”. In same way, Prophet hood is not a profession that can be adopted by any one in society. It is granted with God’s permission and only selected persons are chosen as Prophets.
Do we need Caliphate or Khilafat in Islam?
The role of caliph became hereditary throughout the Umayyad Caliphate, turning it into the first Islamic empire. The phrase “caliph” is definitely the English form of the Arabic term “Khalifah.” One of the required job of the Caliph ended up being to safeguard the Islamic sacred places of Makkah & Madina.
Now Mecca and Medina is fully safe and no Caliph is needed to safeguard the Holy places. Saudi Arabia as well as all Muslim Nations know how to protect it. Allah has made a powerful system for its safety and management.
If someone states that he or she is only responsible to take care of the holy places, then it would not be acceptable. Being a Khalifatul Muslimeen cannot be awarded by a small group of people.
If we look at the fifth Caliph of Islam after Hazrat Ali then a name would appeared there as present caliph of Islam that was none other than Omar Bin Abdul Aziz. Omar bin Abdul Aziz was interested in activating the principle of shura in his succession, and among his statements in the Shura: “Consultation and debate are the door of mercy and the key to blessing they do not miss an opinion, and firmness is not lost with them.” So, in the end we would like to conclude with statement that Present Caliph of Islam is not present anywhere in world. However, the last renowned caliph of Islam was Omar Bin Abdul Aziz.